Banks set up formal and informal relationships which ?ach other through an extensive system of corresponding
rip banking. The major banks establish extensive international operations not only by extending their branch
network abroad but by establishing correspondent relations with foreign banks too.
ПОЯСНЕННЯ ДО ТЕКСТУ:
1. unit banks (am.) безфілійні банки
2. automated teller machines ( ATM ) банкомати, банківські автомати
3. point-of-sale (POS) електронний комп'ютерний термінал, який дозволяє клієнтам банків здійснювати
розрахунки за допомогою дебет карток
4. Branch banking система банків, які мають філії
5. Head-office головна контора
6. Branch-offices філії
7. Branch network сітка філій
WHAT ECONOMICS IS ABOUT
1. In a general way, we all know what economics is about. It is concerned with the production, and use of
goods. It deals with the activities of business, workers and farmers. Adam Smith said that economics was an
Inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations.
2. Economics is known to focus on production of goods, and on the Income generated in the course of
production. Goods and the resources needed to produce goods are scarce, and this raises problems of choice for
Individual and for the national economy.
3. There are two main branches of economics - microeconomics and macroeconomics. But these are interrelated.
4. Microeconomics examines how consumers choose between goods, how workers choose between Jobs, how a
businessman decides what to produce and what production methods to use.
5. Macroeconomics looks for the economy as a whole:
total output and income, the level of employment and of unemployment, the amount of money in circulation, the
level of prices.
6. Microeconomics and macroeconomics must be related because they deal with the same experlen. The whole is
the sum of the parts. If total output is- rising it must be because many businessmen are deciding to increase
their production. Why are they doing this? How does a businessman decide what to produce, how much to produce
what prices to charge what wage rates to pay? These questions which lie at the core of microeconomics, are a
necessary foundation for macroeconomics as well.
1. A computer is a device that is able to accept, store and process enormous Quantities of data1 in an
extremely short time. A computer allows to get information almost immediately, the data being punched into
cards or being recorded on the magnetic tape. It is able to performe calculations of great complexity at
speed considerably faster than any human being or mechanical means.
2. The first mechanical calculating machines were developed in the early 1820s3. The modern history of digital
computers began in 1939. A number of automatic machines were constructed in the early days4 of computing, the
machines of this type being designed to solve different equations. Although they performed many useful
functions their speed of calculations was limited by electromechanical equipment.
3. The next step was construction of the machine in the 1946.. It was the forerunner of the firs' generation
of electronic digital computers. Until the discovery of germanium transistors In 1947 electronic computers
were like very large furnaces consuming enormous quantities of electric power. They produced more heat than
4. The next generation of electronic computers emerged in the middle of 1950s. These were "stored-program"
machines. They could store and process more information and faster.
5. Today it is possible to obtain a computer with great processing capability. We know a computer to solve a
complicated problem much faster than a skilled mathematician. It processes thousands of calculations per
6. There are two main classes of computing equipment:
analogue and digital. They work on different principles and yield0 'different results.